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TIME-TABLE (CHRONOLOGICAL)
YEAR KEYWORD EVENT
-3500 SUMERIAN CLAY TABLETS Sumerians use cuneiform alphabet, pressed in clay with a triangular stylus. Clay tablets were dried and/or fired for longevity. Some even had clay envelopes,' which were also inscribed. Some people consider them to be the earliest form of the book.
-2500 WESTERN ASIAN SCROLLS Animal skins are used for scrolls in Western Asia.
-2400 PAPYRUS Date of the earliest surviving papyrus scroll with writing.
-1900 HITTITES Hittites, from between 1900 and 1200 BC, left appr. 15,000 clay tablets
-1800 BOOK OF DEAD Book of the Dead, Egypt
-1500 PHAISTOS DISC The 'Phaistos disc', found on the island of Crete in 1908, was produced by pressing relief-carved symbols into the soft clay, then baking it. Although it contains the germ of the idea of printing, it appears to be unique.
-950 LEATHER USED FOR SCROLLS Leather is made and used for scrolls and writing.
-800 PHOENECIAN WRITING Moabite stone is created with one of the finest specimens of Phoenician writing. The letters resemble Greek.
-650 PAPER Papyrus. First rolls arrive in Greece from Egypt
-650 PAPYRUS Papyrus. First rolls arrive in Greece from Egypt
-600 WRITING SYSTEM DEVELOPED 6th C. BC General agreement among Mediterranean cultures on left-to-right writing and reading. Before that, there was L-R, R-L, top-to-bottom, and boustroph
edonic (back-and-forth). The Hebres kept R-L.
-500 LAO TZE Lao-Tze's lifetime, was said to have been archivist of the imperial archives
-431 XENOPHON (431-352 BC) author of Anabasis and Memorabilia.
-295 ALEXANDRIA LIBARY King Ptolemy I Soter enlisted the services of the orator Demetrios Phalereus, a former governor of Athens, and empowered him to collect, if he could, all the books in the inhabited world. To support his efforts, the king sent letters to all sovereigns and governors on earth requesting that the furnish workd by poets and prose-writers, rhetoricians and sophists, doctors and soothsayers, historians, and all others too (Flavius Josephus). Agents were sent out to scout the cities of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. Foreign vessels calling in at Alexandria were searched routinely for scrolls and manuscripts. Transcripts were returned in due course, but the originals remained confiscated in the library. The story of the 47 AD destruction of the library is only partly true. Some 40,000 of the 700,000 volumes did go up in flames.
-213 CHIN TAIN SHIHUANGTI Chin Tain Shihuangti, emporer of China, issued an edict that all books should be destroyed (manuscripts on bamboo)
-200 WAX TABLETS CODEX before 1st C. BC Both Greeks and Romans used wax tablets, framed and backed with wood, for note taking, orders, correspondence, and other temporary informat
ion. At times, two or more tablets were joined with thongs or cords, similar to a 3-ringed binder. The Latin name for this was _codex_, from the word for wood. Single wax tablets had been used earlier than this in Mesopotamia, Greece, and Etruria.
-197 PERGAMUM 197-159 BC In the Middle East, near Pergamum, large herds of cattle are raised for skins to be made into what we now call 'parchment.'
-196 ROSETTA STONE The'Rosetta' stone is cut. It contains the same text in Egyptian hieroglyphic, Egyptian demotic, and Greek writing. It was discovered in 1799 near the mouth of the Nile and served to break the code for deciphering ancient Egyptian works.
-150 PAPER The first paper is made in CHina from macerated hemp fibers in water suspension.
-150 DEAD SEA SCROLLS 150 BC - 40 AD Approximate dates of the Hebrew and Aramaic documents, Biblical and nonbiblical, found as scrolls sealed in ceramic pots in caves near the Dead Sea in 1957. Some are written on thin, whitish leather similar but not identical to parchment
-100 PAPER Nash Papyrus, oldest known biblical fragment, containing the Hebrew text of the ten commandments. Acquired in Egypt 1902 by W.L.Nash and now in Cambridge University Library.
-100 BIBLE Nash Papyrus, oldest known biblical fragment, containing the Hebrew text of the ten commandments. Acquired in Egypt 1902 by W.L.Nash and now in Cambridge University Library.
-100 CODICES 1st C. BC - 1st C. AD The Romans substituted skin, or membranae, for the wood panels in codices. It is unclear just when this was done and whether membranae was similar to Medieval parchment or to the thin leather of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but it is known that there are no examples or records of this substitution prior to the Romans. Later, Romans used codices to record laws and rules of
order, lending the name codes or codicils to such documents.
-100 CODEX 1st C. AD By the end of this century, the form of the book had largely changed from the scroll to the codex.
-100 NASH PAPYRUS Nash Papyrus, oldest known biblical fragment, containing the Hebrew text of the ten commandments. Acquired in Egypt 1902 by W.L.Nash and now in Cambridge University Library.
-100 PAPYRUS Nash Papyrus, oldest known biblical fragment, containing the Hebrew text of the ten commandments. Acquired in Egypt 1902 by W.L.Nash and now in Cambridge University Library.
-39 LIBERTAS TEMPLE Libertas. Asinius Pollio establishes first public library in Rome at the Libertas Temple
-28 AUGUSTUS Augustus. Under the reign of emporer Augustus two large libraries were founded, the Palatine and the Octavian library
47 ALEXANDRIA LIBRARY DAMAGED The great Library of Alexandria was damaged by fire
when Julius Caeser besieged the city. It was said at one time to contain copies and translations of all known books (scrolls), between 400,000 and 500,000. It was later ravaged by civil war in the late 200s AD and by 400, nothing was left.
100 ULPIA Ulpia. Bibliotheca Ulpia founded by Trajan, also serving as emperial archive
104 TS'AI LOUEN Papermaking discovered in China by Ts'ai Louen (date is not very specific: it may have been 105. Name also written as: Ts'ai Lun) Material used: plant bark, discarded cotton and old fishnets.
104 PAPER Papermaking discovered in China by Ts'ai Louen (date is not very specific: it may have been 105. Name also written as: Ts'ai Lun) Material used: plant bark, discarded cotton and old fishnets.
105 PAPER Chinese history records that papermaking was invented by Ts'ai Lun in the court of Ho'ti in Lei-yang, China. Paper had, in fact, been made in China for at least two hundred years before this date. The first papers were made from hemp, bark, and used fish nets.
191 PALATINE Palatine library destoyed by fire
370 PUBLIC LIBRARY ROME Public libraries, in these days there were said to be 28 public libaries in Rome
391 ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY Alexandrian Library destroyed under the direction of Archbishop Theophilus of Antioch (destruction of temple of Serapis)
480 BOETHIUS (480-524), the last learned Roman to study the language and literature of Greece. He wrote his DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIAE while awaiting his execution. The Consolation of Philosophy is a dialogue of 39 short poems in 13 different meters that paid tribute to the ancient authors and philosophers.
590 LUXEUIL Luxeuil. Monastery founded by Columban, first monastery in Gaul. Irish Monks brought along numerous manuscripts
637 CAESAREA Caesarea Library destroyed by Arabs conquering Palestine (library was orignally founded by church father Origen who died 309 AD)
687 CUTHBERT, GOSPEL OF St. JOHN Undoubtedly one of history's most dramatic book exhumations involves a manuscript copy of the Gospel of St.John that was buried in the year 687 with the body of St. Cuthbert, bishop near Lindesfarne. Two hundred years later Danish invaders sacked the holy compund, carrying with them the remains of Cuthbert. In 1104 the carved wooden casket was opened and the Gospel, a manuscript written in uncial, was found perfectly preserved.
700 LINDISFARNE Lindisfarne Gospels written on 258 leaves (link to on-line reproductions: http://www.xs4all.nl/~knops/manuscri.html )
715 CODEX AMITINUS Codex Amitinus, manuscript of the Vulgate written in Northumbrian uncial.
716 AMITIANUS Amiatinus. Codex Amiatinus, made at the scriptorium of the twin monasteries Wearmouth and Jarrow near Newcastle, Northumbria. This codex brings together the entire old and new testament in 1,030 folios in a single binding..
750 AUREUS Aureus. Codex Aureaus written, probably at Canterbury
750 CANTERBURY Canterbury School of manuscript illumination, active until 13th century.
750 PAPER Paper making reached Samarkand before 750, Baghdad in 793, Damascus and Cairo in approximately 950. Through the Arab conquest of North Africa and Southern Spain, the invention first reached the Moorish parts of Spain in the 11th century. A mill was recorded at Fez in Morocco in 1100, and the first on the Spanish mainland at Xativa in 1151. It reached Southern Italy in the 13th century, where, untill quite recently, some of the oldest handmade paper mills in Italy were operating near Amalfi, in the Naples area.
750 WILLIBRORD Willibrord Gospels made appr. 750, probably made by the artists of the Book of Durrow
751 PAPER Papermaking introduced in the Islamic world
800 PAPER Marbling in Japan, first Turkish marbled paper 1586, first Dutch 1598
800 KELLS Kells, Book of. written and painted at the Columbian monastery of Iona or at the Abbey of Kells in Ireland. 340 folia survived. Since 1661 in Trinity College, Dublin
800 MARBLING Marbling in Japan, first Turkish marbled paper 1586, first Dutch 1598
868 WOODBLOCK China, oldest known woodblock printing (method was in use much earlier)
868 PAPER The first book printed on paper in China, in block printed Buddhist scripts.
896 COLOPHON Colophon, oldest known manuscript colophon, in Books of the Prophets written by Moses ben Asher in Tiberias.
896 MOSES BEN ASHER Colophon, oldest known manuscript colophon, in Books of the Prophets written by Moses ben Asher in Tiberias.
950 WINCHESTER Winchester School, 950-1100, characteristic style of manuscript illumination
954 ABINGDON Abingdon Monastery founded by Aethelwold, monks famous for manuscript illumination, Winchester School
1041 MOVABLE TYPE In 1403 the earliest known book was printed from movable type in Korea, a process which had been used by the Chinese as early as 1041. In 1450 Gutenberg printed his 42-line Bible in Mainz on a quality of handmade paper which remains unsurpassed to this day. 26 Years later William Caxton brought the art of printing to England, and in 1486 the first English coloured illustrated book was printed in St. Albans.
1068 FATIMITE Fatimite. Library of the Fatimite family (Cairo) destoyed by the Turks
1085 PAPER Papermaking in Jativa Spain
1140 WINCHESTER Winchester Bible, 1140-1190, English late Romanesque illumination
1140 BIBLE Winchester Bible, 1140-1190, English late Romanesque illumination
1147 UTRECHT PSALTER Utrecht Psalter, Eadwine Psalter, copy of the Utrecht Psalter, example of Canterbury Romanesque written at Christchurch by Eadwine
1238 PAPER Papermaking mill established in Capellades, Catalonia
1250 FORE EDGE Fore Edge Painting, first on French psalter manuscript
1250 BLOCK PRINTING the first record of block printing (on paper?) in Egypt.
1276 WATERMARK The important invention of watermarking was made at one of the Fabriano Mills in Tuscany during the second half of the 13th century. One can assume that the reason for the watermark was to give the product a branded trade mark of superior quality. There exists a remarkable archive of Fabriano watermarks going back to the first one in 1276, showing a mark for each year until modern times.
1276 PAPER Paper. First papermill established in Italy
1282 PAPER Watermark, Oldes know watermark (Italy)
1282 WATERMARK Watermark, Oldes know watermark (Italy)
1283 PAPER Fabriano, town inwhich first Italian papermill was established. Still name of an Italian handmade paper
1283 FABRIANO Fabriano, town inwhich first Italian papermill was established. Still name of an Italian handmade paper
1290 EDDA Edda, Elder Edda (Saemundar Edda) written, presented to King Frederik III by the Icelandic bishop Brynjolfur Sveinsson, now in the Copenhagen Royal Library)
1313 BOCCACIO Giovanni Boccacio (1313-1375), author of the DECAMERON.
1325 PAUPERUM Biblia Pauperum made in Klosterneuburg near Vienna
1325 BIBLE Biblia Pauperum made in Klosterneuburg near Vienna
1325 BELLEVILLE Belleville Breviary by Jean Pucelle (Parisian manuscript painter)
1338 PAPER Paper, oldest known papermill in France
1340 BERRY Berry, Jean duc de (d.1416). Les Tres Riches Heures.
1340 RICHES HEURES Berry, Jean duc de (d.1416). Les Tres Riches Heures.
1373 BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE Bibliotheque Nationale. Charles V is said to be the founder of this library. The 1373 catalogue of his library lists about 1000 volumes, housed in the Louvre
1389 BEDFORD Bedford, John of Lancaster, Duke. The Bedford Missal, 1423
1396 BURGUNDY Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
1399 GENSFLEISCH, GUTENBERG Gutenberg, Johann, d.1468, born in Mainz as Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg
1399 GUTENBERG Gutenberg.Year of birth Gutenberg
1400 CHAUCER Chaucer died
1410 ELLESMERE Ellesmere Chaucer, illustrated manuscript of the Canterbury Tales
1418 WOODCUT Woodcut, oldest known specimen
1418 ROHAN Rohan Book of Hours, made for Yolande of Aragon.
1420 FOUQUET Fouquet, Jean, d.1480, leading 15th century manuscript painter (Hours of Etienne de Chavalier)
1420 JENSON Jenson, Nocolaus, d. 1480, punchcutter and printer of Venice
1420 CAXTON Caxton, William, born.
1421 BISTICCI Bisticci, Vespasiano da, d.1498, Florentine bookseller, had people like Cosimo de Medici as customer.
1423 BUXHEIM Buxheim Saint Christopher, early dated European woodcut illustrations
1425 MANSION Mansion, Colard, d.1484, one of the leading calligraphers in Bruges, Belgium
1425 CALLIGRAPHY Mansion, Colard, d.1484, one of the leading calligraphers in Bruges, Belgium
1425 MARMION Marmion, Simon, d.1489. Flemish miniature painter, amongst others Grandes Chroniques de France for Philip the Good
1430 WEYDEN Weyden, Rogier van der, d.1464, illustration in Chronique du Haunaut.
1430 XYLOGRAPHIC BOOKS Xylographic. First xylographic books, or block books produced in Germany and Holland
1430 HAINAUT, CHRONIQUE Weyden, Rogier van der, d.1464, illustration in Chronique du Haunaut.
1434 WOHLGEMUT Wolgemut, Michael, d.1519, Nuremberg painter famous for his designs for woodcuts.
1435 CLEVES Hours of Catherine of Cleves made in Utrecht, Holland
1436 REGIOMONTANUS Regiomontanus, Johanes, d. 1476, printer at Königsberg, Germany, publisher of astronomical works
1440 KOBERGER Koberger, Anton, d.1513. Printer in Neuremberg since 1470. First dated book Disciplinarum Platonis Epitome, 1472
1440 DISCIPLINARIUM PLATONIS EPITOME Koberger, Anton, d.1513. Printer in Neuremberg since 1470. First dated book Disciplinarum Platonis Epitome, 1472
1441 MARCIANA Marciana. Bibliotheca Marciana founded by Cosimo de Medici
1448 BRUSSELS LIBRARY Chronique du Hainaut, illustration by Rogier van der Weyden (manuscript is in Royal Library of Brussels)
1450 MANUTIUS Manutius. year of birth Aldus Manutius (Teobaldo Manucci), d.1515
1453 CONSTANTINE Constantine library. Many books were burnt in this year (Constantinople captured by the Turks) or carried away and sold
1454 GUTENBERG Gutenberg. publication of Turkenkalender (Fust, Schöffer, Gutenberg (??)
1455 BLOCK BOOK Block Books in Europe, between 1455 and 1510.
1455 XOLOGRAPHY Biblia Pauperum, first xylographic version made in Germany
1456 BIBLE, GUTENBERG Gutenberg. 42-line bible by Gutenberg
1457 COLOR PRINTING Colour printing, earliest example in Mainz Psalter
1457 MAINZ PSALTER Mainz Psalter by Fust and Schoffer
1458 CORVINUS Corvinus, Matthias, d.1490, King of Hungary, famous bookcollector
1460 FROBEN Froben, Johann, d.1527, started printing in Basle 1491. Printer of Erasmus publications
1460 CATHOLICON Catholicon of Johannes Baldus printed by Schöffer
1461 EDELSTEIN Edelstein, der, by Ulrich Boner, printed by Albrecht Pfister of Bamberg, first printed book with woodcut illustrations
1461 BIBLE, BIBLIA PAUPERUM Biblia Pauperum issued in Bamberg with handcolored illustrations
1462 BADIUS Badius Ascensius, Jodocus (1535). Parisian printer
1464 WEYDEN Weijden, Rogier van der, death of.
1465 BIBLE, BIBLIA PAPUPERUM Biblia Pauperum, first typeset edition made near Brussels, illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.
1465 DRYPOINT ENGRAVING The first drypoint engravings known in the history of prints are those of the MASTER OF THE HOUSEBOOK, active in Germany between 1465 and 1500. The technique was also used, though rarely, by Dürer, for example in his St. Jerome by a Pollard Willow (1512). The unsurpassed master was to be Rembrandt, who used drypoint on its own, or with etching.
1465 CANTICUM CANTICORUM Canticum Canticorum, illustrated by Memling(?) or Van der Weijden(?)
1465 BIBLIA, PAUPERUM Biblia Pauperum, first typeset edition made near Brussels, illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.
1465 WEYDEN Biblia Pauperum, first typeset edition made near Brussels, illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.
1465 HOUSEBOOK, MASTER OF THE The first drypoint engravings known in the history of prints are those of the MASTER OF THE HOUSEBOOK, active in Germany between 1465 and 1500. The technique was also used, though rarely, by Dürer, for example in his St. Jerome by a Pollard Willow (1512).
1466 PETRUCCI Petrucci, Ottaviano, d.1539. Printer in Venice who established a papermill that remained active until the 19th century
1466 ARS MORIENDI Ars Moriendi published first time
1466 PAPER Petrucci, Ottaviano, d.1539. Printer in Venice who established a papermill that remained active until the 19th century
1466 ERASMUS Erasmus, Desiderius, d.1536
1467 HAN Italy. First book printed in Rome by Ulrich Han
1467 COLONNA Hypnerotomachia Poliphili written by Francesco Colonna
1468 GUTENBERG Gutenberg dies February 3rd
1469 ARCHES Arches Papermill in Vosges, France
1469 PAPER Arches Papermill in Vosges, France
1469 BINDING Bookbinding, the first time the roller or roulette appeared in German binderies
1471 VULGATE BIBLE Malermi Bible (Italian translation of the Vulgate) first printed in Venice by Wendelin da Spira
1471 WENDELIN DA SPIRA Malermi Bible (Italian translation of the Vulgate) first printed in Venice by Wendelin da Spira
1471 BIBLE Malermi Bible (Italian translation of the Vulgate) first printed in Venice by Wendelin da Spira
1471 MALERMI Malermi Bible (Italian translation of the Vulgate) first printed in Venice by Wendelin da Spira
1471 DÜRER Durer, Albrecht, d.1528
1472 CRANACH Cranach, Lucas, d.1553. German painter and woodcutter.
1472 DANTE DIVINE COMEDY, first printed edition of Dante's epic poem
1472 SPECULUM HUMANAE.. Speculum Humanae Salvationes printed by Gunther Zainer
1473 BURCKMAIER Burckmaier, Hans, d.1531. After Durer leading (book)illustrator.
1473 DUCALI Ducali bindings, from 1473-1600, bindings made for the edicts, decrees and governor's commisions issued by the Doges of Venice
1473 PHILOBIBLON Philobiblon. Richard de Bury's treatise written in praise of books
1475 MANSION, COLARD Belgium, First books printed by Colard Mansion of Bruges
1477 INTAGLIO Intaglio. First book with intaglio illustrations 'Il Monte Sancto di Dio' published in Florence
1479 GROLIER Grolier, Jean, d.1565. Famous French bibliphile, famous for the bindings of his books
1479 CARPI Carpi, Ugo da, d.1533, leading engraver of Venice and Rome, likely one of the developers, inventors of chiarusco printing
1482 POETICON ASTRONOMICON Poeticon Astronomicon by Erhard Ratdolt, illustrated with allegorical woodcuts
1483 KOBERGER Cologne Bible by Anton Koberger of Nuremberg
1486 CHEVALIER LIBERÉ Chevalier Libere, printed 1486 by Gotfred van Os at Gouda (book deals with Charles the Bold)
1486 CAXTON Caxton, William prints his first books in England, in Westminster
1489 OS, GOTFRIED VAN Denmark. Bookprinting came to Copenhagen with the arrival of the Dutch printer Gotfried van Os, who called himself Gotfred of Ghemen
1490 BLADO Blado, Antonio, d.1567. Printer in Rome, had cursive type face designed by Arrighi.
1490 ARRIGHI Blado, Antonio, d.1567. Printer in Rome, had cursive type face designed by Arrighi.
1493 ETCHING The earliest known etchings are by Daniel Hopfer, active at Augsburg between 1493 and 1536, the Swiss Urs Graf, and Dürer, who did five etchings on iron, among them The Agony in the Garden, and The Cannon. Lucas van Leyden (1489-1533) also used this technique on a few rare occasions. The earliest Italian etching is by Parmigianino (1503-1540), whose prints are more sketchy and spontaneous than those of the Northern artists. Etching is above all the medium of Rembrandt: with it he reached a depth and universality of expression never equalled in the history of prints.
1493 SCHEDEL Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik published with illustrations by Wolgemut
1493 LEEU Leeu, Gerard, d.1493, printer at Gouda, Holland
1494 NARRENSCHIFF Brant. Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff published, illustrated with woodcuts, among them the famous Bookfool woodcut by Durer (?)
1494 SHIP OF FOOLS DAS NARRENSCHIFF by Sebastian Brant, first publication. Within fifteen years the work appeared in one Latin, three French, one Dutch, one Low German and an English version. One reason often cited to explain Brant's far-reaching appeal was that he wrote in short chapters, mixed his *fools* skillfully, and maintained a fluid style that engaged his readers.
1494 SHIP OF FOOLS Brant. Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff published, illustrated with woodcuts, among them the famous Bookfool woodcut by Durer (?)
1494 NARRENSCHIFF Narrenschiff, Ship of Fools, by Sebastian Brant, published by Bergmann von Olpe, Basle, illustrated with 114 woodcuts.
1494 BRANT Brant. Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff published, illustrated with woodcuts, among them the famous Bookfool woodcut by Durer (?)
1494 BRANT, SEBASTIAN Narrenschiff, Ship of Fools, by Sebastian Brant, published by Bergmann von Olpe, Basle, illustrated with 114 woodcuts.
1495 BEMBO Bembo. First Latin book from the Aldus' press was Pietro Bembo's dialog about Aetna (printed in a roman type that became the model for later French types, including Garamond's
1495 MANUTIUS Griffo, Francesco, cut 'old face' roman type for Aldus Manutius
1495 BALE Bale, John (1563). Compiler of first bibliography in England
1495 MANUTIUS Manutius, Greek Grammar, first book published by Manutius
1495 LUFFT Lufft, Hans, d.1584, printer-publisher of Wittenberg
1495 MANUTIUS Manutius, Edition of Aristotle in five volumes, first complete edition in Greek, printed/published between 1495-1498
1497 HOLBEIN Holbein, Hans, d.1543.
1497 NEUDÖRFER Neudörfer, Johann, d. 1563, writing master of Nuremberg, his 'Fundament' was the first writing book to be published (collection of Fraktur scripts).
1498 PETRUCCI Music Printing using movable type invented by Ottaviano Petrucci of Venice
1498 DÜRER Durer's Apocalypse series woodcuts
1498 MUSIC PRINTING Music Printing using movable type invented by Ottaviano Petrucci of Venice
1499 PRINTING PRESS Printing Press, oldest known reproduction of, in Dance of Death printed in Lyon by M.Huss
1499 MANUTIUS Hypnerotomachia Poliphili printed by Manutius
1500 GARAMONT Garamont, Claude, d.1561. Parisian type designer and punchcutter
1501 GRIFFO Manutius. First time use of Francescop Griffo's *Italic* type by Manutius
1501 MANUTIUS Manutius. Virgil edition; first book by Aldus Manutius in octavo format
1501 MANUTIUS Manutius. First time use of Francescop Griffo's *Italic* type by Manutius
1502 EGENOLFF Egenolff, Christian, d.1555, established press and foundry in Frankfurt 1530
1507 CHIAROSCURO Chiaroscuro, first by Georg Lucas Cranach.
1507 CRANACH Chiaroscuro, first by Georg Lucas Cranach.
1507 OPORINUS Oporinus, Johannes, d.1568, scholar-printer of Basle, issued more than 800 publications, including Koran and writings by Luther. Most important: Andreas Vesalius 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica' (anatomical study)
1508 BURGKMAIR Earliest dated German colour woodcut: The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback by Hans Burgkmair (1473-1531)
1508 EARLIEST GERMAN COLOUR WOODCUT The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback by Hans Burgkmair (1473-1531)
1508 WOODCUT, COLOURED Jost de Negker, active in Antwerp 1508-1544, master of Burgkmair, Cranach and Hans Baldung Grien. Believed to be the inventor of the colored woodcut.
1508 NEGKER, JOST DE Active in Antwerp 1508-1544, master of Burgkmair, Cranach and Hans Baldung Grien. Believed to be the inventor of the colored woodcut.
1509 NARRENSCHIFF Narrenschiff, English adaptation Ship of Fools by Alexander Barclay, based on the latin translation by Jacob Locher.
1510 GROLIER Grolier was in Italy as a French legate from 1510-1537
1512 MERCATOR Mercator, Gerard, d.1592 (Gerhard Kremer) Cartographer, mathematician. 1537 established a business as globe and map maker.
1513 FRAKTUR Fraktur, first book printed in this type, Prayer book of Maximilian teh First
1514 ASCENIUS Denmark Chronicle printed by Ascenius in Paris
1514 DENMARK CHRONICLE Denmark Chronicle printed by Ascenius in Paris


CONTINUE 1515-1648

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