954 ABINGDON Abingdon Monastery founded by Aethelwold, monks famous for manuscript illumination, Winchester School
1689 ALESSANDRINA At her death in 1689, Christina of Sweden's library, known as the Bibliotheca Alessandrina (she considered herself a female Alexander the Great), was transferred to the Vatican Library.
-295 ALEXANDRIA LIBARY King Ptolemy I Soter enlisted the services of the orator Demetrios Phalereus, a former governor of Athens, and empowered him to collect, if he could, all the books in the inhabited world. To support his efforts, the king sent letters to all sovereigns and governors on earth requesting that the furnish workd by poets and prose-writers, rhetoricians and sophists, doctors and soothsayers, historians, and all others too (Flavius Josephus). Agents were sent out to scout the cities of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. Foreign vessels calling in at Alexandria were searched routinely for scrolls and manuscripts. Transcripts were returned in due course, but the originals remained confiscated in the library. The story of the 47 AD destruction of the library is only partly true. Some 40,000 of the 700,000 volumes did go up in flames.
47 ALEXANDRIA LIBRARY DAMAGED The great Library of Alexandria was damaged by fire
when Julius Caeser besieged the city. It was said at one time to contain copies and translations of all known books (scrolls), between 400,000 and 500,000. It was later ravaged by civil war in the late 200s AD and by 400, nothing was left.
391 ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY Alexandrian Library destroyed under the direction of Archbishop Theophilus of Antioch (destruction of temple of Serapis)
1661 ALGONQUIN Bible. first bible published in America by Samuel Green (John Eliot's Algonquin Indian version)
1857 AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS Bullen, Henry Lewis, d.1938, creator of American Type Founders Company Library and Museum in Jersey City.
1891 AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS Founding American Type Founders Company
716 AMITIANUS Amiatinus. Codex Amiatinus, made at the scriptorium of the twin monasteries Wearmouth and Jarrow near Newcastle, Northumbria. This codex brings together the entire old and new testament in 1,030 folios in a single binding..
1539 AMMAN Amman. birth Jost Amman
1793 ANNALES TYPOGRAPHICI Annales Typographici ab artis inventae origine ad annum MD by Georg Panzer
1734 AQUATINT This process was invented by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince (1734-1784). François Janinet (1752-1813) was the first to employ it for colour prints, by using several plates. Francisco Goya made great use of it, often combining it with line engraving, etching and also drypoint. In more recent times it has been one of the favourite techniques of Georges Rouault (1871-1958) and Pablo Picasso.
1469 ARCHES Arches Papermill in Vosges, France
1926 ARGONAU Argonau Press, London (until 1938)
1888 ARP, HANS. Jean (Hans) Arp (1888-1966) Alsatian, born Strasbourg, attended Strasbourg School of Applied Art, studied at Weimar Art School. Contributed to Blaue Reiter exhibitions. Co-founder of DADA Zurich 1916.
1490 ARRIGHI Blado, Antonio, d.1567. Printer in Rome, had cursive type face designed by Arrighi.
1466 ARS MORIENDI Ars Moriendi published first time
1514 ASCENIUS Denmark Chronicle printed by Ascenius in Paris
1894 ASHENDENE Ashendene Press (Published until 1938)
1824 ATHENEUM Atheneum Club in London founded by Richard Heber
1650 ATLAS MAGNUS Atlas Magnus Blaeu made between 1650-1662.
1853 AUER Nature Printing developed by Alois Auer
-28 AUGUSTUS Augustus. Under the reign of emporer Augustus two large libraries were founded, the Palatine and the Octavian library
750 AUREUS Aureus. Codex Aureaus written, probably at Canterbury
1726 AUSTRIA NATIONAL LIBRARY Austria. Imperial Library (now National Library) building built by J.B.Fischer
1462 BADIUS Badius Ascensius, Jodocus (1535). Parisian printer
1785 BAER OF FRANKFURT Oldest German used book business founded by Joseph Baer of Frankfurt
1713 BAINE Baine, John (1790). Edinburgh typefounder
1495 BALE Bale, John (1563). Compiler of first bibliography in England
1772 BALLANTYNE Ballantyne, James (1833). Publisher of Sir Walter Scott
1759 BALSTON Balston, William (1849). English papermaker
1848 BAMPTON PRESS Bampton Press' foundation date.
1870 BARLACH, ERNST German, studied at Hamburg School of Applied Art, Dresden Academy, and Académie Julian in Paris. One of the most important German expressionist artists. Some of the books he illustrated: Der Tote Tag (1912), Der Arme Vetter (1919), Goethe Gedichte (1924), Schiller: An Die Freude (1927).
1706 BASKERVILLE Baskerville, John (1775), Typefounder and printer in Birmingham.
1922 BASKIN, LEONARD American, born New Brunswick. Studied at Yale University School of Fien Arts, The New School in Paris, and with Maurice Glickman. Books illustrated: A Little Book of Natural History (1951), Castle Street Dogs (1954), Voyages, Six Poems, Hart Crane (1957), Horned Beetles and Other Insects (1958), Auguries of Innocence, William Blake (1959).
1837 BAUERSCHE GIESSEREI Bauersche Giesserei (until 1971). Typefounders
1835 BAXTER Baxter patented his printing process
1804 BAXTER Baxter, George (d. 1867). Patented letterpress process for color printing
1804 BAXTER PROCESS Baxter, George, d.1867, inventor if the Baxter Process for colorprinting (combination of intaglio and relief printing)
1640 BAY PSALM BOOK Bay Psalm Book published
1515 BE Be, Guillaume le, d.1598, punchmaker, matrix maker and typefounder of troyes
1872 BEARDSLEY, AUBREY VINCENT (1872-1898). Self taught artist. Draughtsman who was primarily an illustrator, one of the most influential English artists of the nineties. Books: The Birth, Life and Acys of King Arthur (1893-1894); Salome, translated by Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (1894).
1917 BEAUMONT PRESS Beaumont Press, London, closed in 1931
1884 BECKMANN, MAX Born in Leipzig. Studied at Weimar School of Art, joined Berlin Secession. Active in Berlin and Frankfurt. Fled to Holland 1937, to USA 1947. Taught at Washington University, St. Louis, and Brooklyn College. expresionist painter and graphic artist. Books: Eurydikes Wiederkehr (1909); Die Fürstin (1918); Stadtnacht (1921); Ebbi (1924).
1389 BEDFORD Bedford, John of Lancaster, Duke. The Bedford Missal, 1423
1325 BELLEVILLE Belleville Breviary by Jean Pucelle (Parisian manuscript painter)
1495 BEMBO Bembo. First Latin book from the Aldus' press was Pietro Bembo's dialog about Aetna (printed in a roman type that became the model for later French types, including Garamond's
1868 BERNARD, EMILE At age sixteen Emile Bernard (1868-1941) entered atelier Cormon, where he was associated with Toulouse-Lautrec and Van Gogh. At Pont Aven with Gaigain in 1886 and 1888. Member of Nabis. Book: Les Amours (Pierre de Ronsard, 1915).
1840 BERRES, Dr. JOSEPH 18 April 1840 Dr. Joseph Berres, professorof anatomy in Vienna, stated in the Wiener Zeitung that he had succeede in converting daguerreotypes in to printing plates.
1340 BERRY Berry, Jean duc de (d.1416). Les Tres Riches Heures.
1790 BEWICK Bewick: A General history of Quadrupeds
1804 BEWICK Bewick: History of British Birds Vol II
1797 BEWICK Bewick: History of British Birds Vol.I
1753 BEWICK Bewick, Thomas (d. 1828)
1790 BEWICK Bewick's History of Quadrupeds
1325 BIBLE Biblia Pauperum made in Klosterneuburg near Vienna
1471 BIBLE Malermi Bible (Italian translation of the Vulgate) first printed in Venice by Wendelin da Spira
1522 BIBLE Luther, Melchior Lotter printed the first edition of Luthers' translation of the New Testament
1661 BIBLE Bible. first bible published in America by Samuel Green (John Eliot's Algonquin Indian version)
1140 BIBLE Winchester Bible, 1140-1190, English late Romanesque illumination
1516 BIBLE Bible. Johan Froben of Basle published New Testament in Greek
-100 BIBLE Nash Papyrus, oldest known biblical fragment, containing the Hebrew text of the ten commandments. Acquired in Egypt 1902 by W.L.Nash and now in Cambridge University Library.
1534 BIBLE Luther. First complete Luther bible translation, illustrated, was printed by Hans Lufft at Wittenberg
1465 BIBLE, BIBLIA PAPUPERUM Biblia Pauperum, first typeset edition made near Brussels, illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.
1461 BIBLE, BIBLIA PAUPERUM Biblia Pauperum issued in Bamberg with handcolored illustrations
1648 BIBLE, DEVIL'S Devil's Bible. When the Swedes stormed Prague in 1648 they took(stole) many books including the rich collection of the Bohemian kings at Hradschin, many vellum manuscripts, including the Devil's Bible
1553 BIBLE, FERRARA Ferrara Bible printed by Abraham ibn Usque
1456 BIBLE, GUTENBERG Gutenberg. 42-line bible by Gutenberg
1569 BIBLE, POLYGLOT Plantin, Polyglot Bible
1465 BIBLIA, PAUPERUM Biblia Pauperum, first typeset edition made near Brussels, illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.
1996 BIBLIO MAGAZINE Biblio Magazine, first issue published
1922 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY Oxford Bibliographical Society founded
1809 BIBLIOMANIA Thomas Frognell Dibdin (1776-1847) published 1809: THE BIBLIOMANIA; or, Book-Madness; containing some account of the History, Symptoms, and Cure of this Fatal Disease.
1537 BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONAL France I ordered that all French presses should deliver a copy of every book they printed to the royal library
1373 BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE Bibliotheque Nationale. Charles V is said to be the founder of this library. The 1373 catalogue of his library lists about 1000 volumes, housed in the Louvre
1758 BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE Silvestre de Sacy (1758-1838), sensible and analytical scholar, a briljant man who served from 1833 to his death as keeper of Oriental manuscripts at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.
1860 BINDING Buckram, first used for bookcovers.
1832 BINDING Bookbinding, invention of sewing machine by Philip Watt of London
1686 BINDING Magnus, Albertus (d.) important 17th century Amsterdam bookbinder, amongst others Elzevier Bibles
1469 BINDING Bookbinding, the first time the roller or roulette appeared in German binderies
1859 BINDING McLeish, Charles, d.1949. Binder of Edinburgh, worked for the Doves Bindery
1879 BINDING Regemorter, Berthe van, d.1964. Belgium bookbinder
1757 BINDING Bohn, Johann,d.1843. German binder, noted for his gilded doublures, and paper marbling
1570 BINDING Fanfare, until 1640, book cover decoration developed in France (interlacing ribbons)
1901 BINDING Brugalia, Emilio, leading Spanish bookbinder, born in Barcelona.
1584 BINDING Ruette, Mace, d.1644, Parisian master binder and court binder
1755 BINDING Edwards of Halifax binding firm founded by William Edwards of Yorkshire
1955 BINDING Dry Coated paper developed at the Battlefield Memorial Institute, Columbia
1421 BISTICCI Bisticci, Vespasiano da, d.1498, Florentine bookseller, had people like Cosimo de Medici as customer.
1490 BLADO Blado, Antonio, d.1567. Printer in Rome, had cursive type face designed by Arrighi.
1662 BLAEU Blaeu, publication of Atlas Major in 11 volumes
1571 BLAEU Blaeu, Willem Janszoon, d.1638. Map engraver, bookseller, printer of Amsterdam
1629 BLAEU Blaeu Atlasses made between 1629 and 1662.
1618 BLAEU Blaeu firm, renown for their atlasses, active from 1618 to 1672
1650 BLAEU Atlas Magnus Blaeu made between 1650-1662.
1757 BLAKE Blake, William, d.1827. English artist-illustrator, illustrated Milton and Dante editions.
1455 BLOCK BOOK Block Books in Europe, between 1455 and 1510.
1250 BLOCK PRINTING the first record of block printing (on paper?) in Egypt.
1667 BLON, JAKOB CHRISTOF LE Jakob Christof Le Blon (1667-1741) was the first to produce an engraving in several colours. He took as his starting point Newston's theory, published in 1702, which stated that all colours in the spectrum are composed of the three primary colours -blue, yellow and red. In practice, however, in order to obtain a satisfactory impression, a fourth plate had to be added, bearing black lines.
1640 BLOOTELING Blooteling, Abraham, d.1690. Developed mezzotint (invented in 1642 by Ludwig von Siegen)
1930 BOAR'S HEAD Boar's Head Press founded by Christopher Sandford, closed in 1936.
1313 BOCCACIO Giovanni Boccacio (1313-1375), author of the DECAMERON.
1634 BODLEIAN Bodleian library, see: Digby, Sir Kenelm
1603 BODLEIAN Digby, Sir Kenelm, d.1665, donor of the Bodleian Library
1545 BODLEY Bodley, Sir Thomas, d.1613. Rebuilder of Oxford University Library bearing his name.
1740 BODONI Bodoni, Giambatista,d.1813. Italian printer and punchcutter.
1963 BODONI, MUSEUM Bodoni. Museo Bodoniano opened in Parma, Italy. Repository of Bodoni's 70,000 punches, moulds, matrices, proof sheets etc.
480 BOETHIUS (480-524), the last learned Roman to study the language and literature of Greece. He wrote his DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIAE while awaiting his execution. The Consolation of Philosophy is a dialogue of 39 short poems in 13 different meters that paid tribute to the ancient authors and philosophers.
1757 BOHN Bohn, Johann,d.1843. German binder, noted for his gilded doublures, and paper marbling
1867 BONNARD, PIERRE (1867-1947), French, studied law, worked at École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Julian, joined the Nabis. First graphic work 1889-1991. Lithographer, designed posters, music sheets, periodical and book covers, and many illlustrations. Also painter. Books:Petites Scènes Familières, Pour Piano (1893); La Lithographie Originale en Couleurs (1898); Parallément (Verlaine, 1900); Daphnis et Chloé (Longus, 1902).
-1800 BOOK OF DEAD Book of the Dead, Egypt
1935 BOOKBURNING Nazis. Bookburning
1825 BÖRSENVEREIN Börsenverein der Deutsche Buchhandlung, Organization for German Booktrade, founded (those engaged in reprinting were excluded!)
1833 BRACQUEMOND, FÉLIX (1833-1914). Born in Paris. Worked for a commercial lithographer, studied with Guichard. Began etching 1849. Chief painter for Sèvres factory and director of studio for decoration of Haviland porcelain. Book: Les Fleurs du Mal (1861)
1829 BRAILLE Braille, Invention of embossed printing for the blind by Louis Braille.
1876 BRANCUSI, CONSTANTIN (1876-1957). Rumanian. Studied in art academies of Bucharest and Cracow, emigrated to paris 1904. One of the first abstract sculptors. Also lithographic work. Book: Tales Told of Shem and Shaun (James Joyce, 1929)
1494 BRANT Brant. Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff published, illustrated with woodcuts, among them the famous Bookfool woodcut by Durer (?)
1494 BRANT, SEBASTIAN Narrenschiff, Ship of Fools, by Sebastian Brant, published by Bergmann von Olpe, Basle, illustrated with 114 woodcuts.
1882 BRAQUE, GEORGES (1882-1963). Argenteuil. paris 1900, studied at Académie Humbert and École des Beaux-Arts. Joined Fauves 1906. With Picasso co-founder of Cubism 1908. Painter, sculptor, graphic artist, book illustrator. Books: Le Piège de Méduse (Erik Satie, 1921); Souspente (Tudal, 1945); Le Soleil des Eaux (Char, 1949); Les Chants (Milarepa, 1950); Cinq Sapates (Ponge, 1950); Theogonie (Hesiod, 1955); La bibliothèque est en Feu (Char, 1956); Le Tir à l'Arc (Suzuki/Herrigel, 1960)
1944 BREMER PRESSE Bremer Presse destroyed by bombing.
1911 BREMER PRESSE Bremer Presse, founded in 1911.
1753 BRITISH LIBRARY British Library. The national library of Britain came into being in 1753 when parliament decided to purchase the collection of books and manuscripts that had been left by Hans Sloane. A few years later George II presented the Royal library
1860 BRITISH TYPOGRAPHIA Jones, George W., d. 1942, Bitish master printer, founded The British Typographia in 1887
1901 BRUGALIA Brugalia, Emilio, leading Spanish bookbinder, born in Barcelona.
1810 BRUNET Brunet's Manuel du Libraire et de l'amateur de livres published.
1448 BRUSSELS LIBRARY Chronique du Hainaut, illustration by Rogier van der Weyden (manuscript is in Royal Library of Brussels)
1860 BUCKRAM Buckram, first used for bookcovers.
1857 BULLEN Bullen, Henry Lewis, d.1938, creator of American Type Founders Company Library and Museum in Jersey City.
1863 BULLOCK Rotary web-fed letterpress machine invented by William Bullock.
1473 BURCKMAIER Burckmaier, Hans, d.1531. After Durer leading (book)illustrator.
1508 BURGKMAIR Earliest dated German colour woodcut: The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback by Hans Burgkmair (1473-1531)
1396 BURGUNDY Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
1833 BURNE-JONES, EDWARD (1833-1898). England. Attended Exeter College with William Morris, with whom he settled in London. Associated with Pre-Raphaelites. Books: The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer Now Newly Imprinted (Kelmscott Press, 1896)
1832 BUSCH, WILHELM (1832-1908). Germany. Studied at Düsseldorf and Munich academies. Painter, graphic artist, poet, illustrator. Book: Krischan mit der Piepe (1864)
1423 BUXHEIM Buxheim Saint Christopher, early dated European woodcut illustrations

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